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Table 10 Water quality, quantity and aquatic ecosystem topics addressed in forest biomass harvesting guidelines, as percent occurrence in 21 North American and 10 European jurisdictions or regions

From: Sustainable forest biomass: a review of current residue harvesting guidelines

Indicator, consequence or actiona North America Europe
Water quality [any action or consequence) 90 50
Actions to prevent or minimize sedimentation
 Minimize stream crossings 81 20
 Avoid exposing mineral soil 81 20
 Design roads, landings to minimize runoff directly to water bodies 90 30
 Use appropriate harvesting equipment 76 10
 Harvest when soil frozen or dry 62 30
Consequence
 Sedimentation 76 30
Actions to prevent or minimize leaching/contaminationb
 Avoid leaving residue in or near water 76 50
 Minimize potential for chemical spills 76 30
Consequence
 Leaching/contaminationb 86 60
Water quantity/flow
 Maintain desired water flow and drainage 81 20
Aquatic ecosystem
Indicator
 Water temperature/shading 76 10
 Actions   
 Leave live trees, dead standing trees, CWD, buffers, RMZ, SMZ 95 70
 Protect wetlands 100 60
 Protect karst pools or vernal pools 62 0
  1. aSee Additional file 1: Table ST-7 for more detail
  2. bSee also Tables 4 and 5 for identification and protection of sensitive sites and soils
  3. RMZ riparian management zone, SMZ stream management zone