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Table 4 Biodiversity topics addressed in forest biomass harvesting guidelines, as percent occurrence in 21 North American and 10 European jurisdictions or regions

From: Sustainable forest biomass: a review of current residue harvesting guidelines

Action or practicea North America Europe
Biodiversity (any action) 91 80
 Restrict on valuable or sensitive sites 90 80
 Restrict on sites with threatened or endangered species 90 70
 Retain some standing live and dead trees, fallen woody biomass, stumps/roots (see also Tables 6 and 7) 90 70
 Retain mast-producing woody vegetationb 48 40
 Retain forest floor or litter (see also Table 8) 90 30
 Retain harvest residues used by wildlife (not in Table 8) 29 10
 Retain travel corridors and transition areas 33 20
 Avoid harvest during reproduction, migration 24 40
 Encourage native species or discourage non-natives 52 50
  1. aSee Additional file 1: Table ST-4 for more detail
  2. bMast species are significant sources of fruits, nuts, seeds, buds and other tissues high in proteins, carbohydrates and fats (Minnesota guidelines, 2012 edition published in 2013)