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Table 5 Soil sensitivity topics (including indicators of sensitive sites, recommended actions, and potential consequences of not taking actions) addressed in forest biomass harvesting guidelines, as percent occurrence in 21 North American and 10 European jurisdictions or regions

From: Sustainable forest biomass: a review of current residue harvesting guidelines

Indicator, consequence or actiona North America Europe
Integrated site indicators
 Site classification, soil survey, expert system, etc. 86 90
Specific-site indicators
 Slope 86 30
 Soil texture 62 50
 Soil depth 62 10
Soil moisture
 Dry soil or site 48 40
 Poorly drained, or wetland, or organic soil 57 40
 Soil organic matter 14 10
 Soil fertility 62 90
Soil physical damage
Consequences
 Erosion, mass wasting, or displacement 100 70
 Compaction or rutting 86 80
 Soil disturbanceb 52 30
Actions
 Restrict residue removal on steep slopes 76 50
 Minimize area of landings, roads, trails 81 30
 Restrict residue removal to dry or frozen soils 71 50
 Restrict number of entries/passes 43 40
 Retain harvest residue (see Table 9) 90 80
 Use appropriate equipment 38 30
 Reduce amount of harvest residue removed 14 0
Soil fertility
Consequences
 Loss of nutrients 90 100
Actions
 Restrict residue removal on shallow soils 67 30
 Restrict residue removal on rocky, stony areas 10 20
 Restrict residue removal on low-fertility soils 38 90
 Restrict residue removal on weathered soils, or soils with low buffering capacity, or acid-sensitive or highly acidic soils 10 30
 Restrict residue removal on organic soils 62 40
 Restrict residue removal on sandy soils 38 50
 Retain harvest residue (see Table 9) 100 100
  1. aSee Additional file 1: Table ST-6 for more detail
  2. bSee Table 10 re: soil contamination and potential impacts on water and aquatic ecosystems