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Table 8 Biomass retention topics addressed in forest biomass harvesting guidelines, as percent occurrence in 21 North American and 10 European jurisdictions or regions

From: Sustainable forest biomass: a review of current residue harvesting guidelines

Indicator, component to retain, or actiona North America Europe
Evaluate
Indicator
 Site/soil 67 70
 Existing DWMb 33 30
 Dominant species 19 30
 Forest management objectives (e.g. harvest frequency and intensity, regeneration) 57 30
What to retain
Pre-harvest—live material
 Live decaying, or cavity trees, or nest trees 62 50
 Mast trees 48 30
 Den trees 43 10
 Residual patches of trees 48 40
 Residual trees (distribution, etc., not specified) 10 30
Pre-harvest—dead material
 Snags 86 60
 Cut snags 48 0
 CWD,c logs 76 60
 FWDd 57 30
 Forest floor or litter 86 20
Post-harveste
 Harvest residue 100 70
 FWD 90 50
 CWD, DWM, woody debris, logs 57 30
 Stumps and coarse roots 90 70
How to retain
 Harvest after leaf drop 57 30
 Let foliage "cure" before removing biomass 14 40
 Lengthen rotations 38 40
 Partial cut or thinning 48 60
 Remove stems only 52 60
 Retain normal breakage from harvest 19 10
 Return residue from roadside 38 0
 Distribute residue on-site or increase residue amounts 95 50
  1. aSee Additional file 1: Table ST-5 for more detail
  2. bDWM: downed woody material
  3. cCWD: coarse woody debris
  4. dFWD: fine woody debris
  5. eSee Table 9 for harvest residue retention thresholds