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Table 9 Minimum harvest residue retention recommended in forest biomass harvesting guidelines, and definitions for coarse woody debris (CWD) when guidelines specifically referred to CWD as a component of harvest residue

From: Sustainable forest biomass: a review of current residue harvesting guidelines

  Minimum residue retentiona Definition of CWD CWD notes, position of diameter measurement
Jurisdiction All residue (%)b Other (ha−1) Diameter (cm) Length (m)
PI    > 200 pieces CWD  > 7.5  > 2  
AL     > 15.2   
IN 20–33    > 15.2   Large end
KY 15–30    > 7.6  > 0.9 Small end
MA 25–100    > 7.6  > 0.9 Small end
MD 20–33    > 7.6–10.2   Large end
ME     > 10.2   Large end, dead and down
MI 17–33    > 15.2   Large end
MN 33    > 15.2   Large end
MO 33    > 15.2   Large end
NC     > 15.2   Large end
PA 15–30     
SC 20–30    > 7.6   Dead and down
VT 20–33    > 7.6   
VA     > 10.2   Inside bark
WI 10 11 t FWMc  > 10.2   Small end, inside bark
NE-USA 25–33     
PNW-USAd 30–50     
PNW-USA   10–20% cover CWD  > 15.2   
PNW-USA   10–20% cover CWDe  > 7.6  > 0.9 Small end, dead and downg
PNW-USA   1–9% cover deadwood  > 12.7   Dead wood
SE-USA 33     
UK 50-66f  > 20 m3  > 10  > 1  
SE 20    > 10   
FI 30    > 10   
LT    > 5 m3  > 10   
Europeh     > 10  > 2  
  1. aSome jurisdictions or regions do not quantify retention thresholds, even if retention is recommended
  2. bProportion of total residue (%)
  3. cFWM: fine woody material
  4. dFWD only
  5. eWhere protection of small mammals and their predators is an objective
  6. fUSDA Forest Service definition; an alternate to the definition in the row above
  7. gFor the UK, 66% of brash or tops from trees < 7-cm dbh
  8. hMinimum diameter is at discretion of individual countries (European Environment Agency, available at https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/forest-deadwood-1)