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Table 1 Sets of indicators used to evaluate bioenergy application

From: Criteria prioritization for the sustainable development of second-generation bioethanol in Thailand using the Delphi-AHP technique

Main criteria Sub-criteria Units References
Technical feasibility Biomass availability and collectability Kg ha−1 y−1 [76,77,78]
Ethanol productivity Liters kg−1 [79, 80]
Biomass logistics Ton day−1, km2 day−1 [81,82,83]
Economic feasibility Net present value US$ [84,85,86]
Final price per liter US$ liter−1 [42, 87]
Added value of input materials US$ ton−1 y−1 [88,89,90]
Social impacts Job creation Persons y−1 [26, 91, 92]
Food security US$ tons crops−1,
Tons ha−1 or Kcal capita−1
[6, 93, 94]
Change in household income US$ y−1 or US$ household−1 y−1 [95,96,97]
Environmental impacts Indirect land use change (Biomass growing capacity) ha−1 y−1or kg CO2-eq (biomass growing capacity)−1 [98, 99]
GHG balance Tons CO2 equiv. y−1 [100,101,102]
Net energy balance GJ ha−1 y−1 [103,104,105]