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Table 5 Results of the sustainability assessment of the grassland project

From: Sustainability assessment of energy technologies: towards an integrative framework

Type of grassland Extensive Intensive
Process A B C D E F G H I
Sustainable use of non-renewable resources
   Primary energy yield + + (7) + + (6) + + (5) + + (8) + + (3) + + (4) + + (2) + + (1) + + (1)
Sustainable use of the environment as a sink
   Greenhouse gas emissions + + (6) + + (5) + + (4) + (8) + + (2) + + (7) + + (3) + + (1) + + (1)
   Cost of avoiding greenhouse gas emissions - (5) - (3) - (3) - - (6) + (2) - - (4) - - (4) + + (1) + + (1)
   Emissions leading to eutrophication - (5) 0 (3) - (6) - - (9) 0 (2) - - (8) - - (7) 0 (3) 0 (1)
   Emissions leading to acidification - (5) 0 (4) - (6) - - (9) + (3) - - (8) - - (7) + (2) + (1)
Protection of human health
   Emissions of particulate matter 0 (4) - (7) - (5) + (1) - (8) 0 (2) 0 (3) - - (9) - (6)
   NOx emissions - - (7) - - (6) - - (8) + (1) - (4) - (3) - (5) - - (6) - (2)
   CO emissions - - (9) + (2) 0 (3) 0 (4) - (6) - (5) - - (7) - - (8) + (1)
   Emissions of substances producing summer smog - - (8) - (7) - - (9) + (1) - (4) - (3) - (5) - (6) 0 (2)
   Emissions of fungal spores 0 0 0 - - 0 0 - -
Sustainable use of renewable resources
   Preservation of biodiversity + (1) + (1) + (1) + (1) - (4) 0/- (2) - - (5) 0 (3) 0 (3)
   Conservation of soil 0 (1) 0 (1) 0 (1) 0 (1) - (2) 0 (1) - - (3) - (2) - (2)
   Protection of the ground and surface water 0 (1) 0 (1) 0 (1) 0 (1) - (2) 0 (1) - - (3) - (2) - (2)
Conservation of nature's cultural function
   Alteration of the cultural landscape + (1) + (1) + (1) + (1) -/+ (2) + (1) - (3) -/+ (2) -/+ (2)
Autonomous self-support
   Agricultural employment + (1) + (4) + (8) + (7)f + (6) + (5) + (2) + (3) + (3)
   Income opportunities for farmers - (7) + (5) - (8) + (6)f + + (2) + (4) + (3) + + (1) + + (1)
  1. f - The data given apply to co fermentation of hay from extensive grassland and maize silage