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Table 2 Stakeholders characteristics and views regarding uptake of decentralised CHP

From: Decentralised combined heat and power in the German Ruhr Valley; assessment of factors blocking uptake and integration

Stakeholder Position and function Interrelation with other stakeholders Opinion towards uptake of decentralised CHP Experienced barriers
Energy supply companies (e.g. RWE/E.ON) Produce and supply energy and operate some of the local heating grids via long-term concessions. Supplies heat and power to end consumer via DSO. Heavily regulated by government. Negative Combining sufficient regional and local heat demand, failing centralised heating plants (momentarily absence of heat supply).
Local governments/cities Run local action plans to support uptake of decentralised CHP. Own public utility companies that in turn operate local heating grids. Serves the common interest. Owns public utility companies. Relations to other stakeholders via local decentralised CHP action plan. Positive/neutral Financial deficits, lack of information, lack of central government (climate) policy to support decentralised CHP, uncertainty related to elections, and lack of policy focus.
Providers of decentralised CHP Produce and sell decentralised CHP units and systems. Provide CHP unit to end users, housing corporation or private contractor to exploit the CHP unit. Positive Existing district heating grid, lack of information, lack of central government (climate) policy goals to support decentralised CHP, strong coal and gas lobby in NRW policymaking venues, elections and lack of policy focus.
CHP unit system installers Provide installation and maintenance services that are used by end consumers. Installs and maintains CHP units as commissioned by end users, housing corporation or private contractor to exploit the CHP unit. Neutral, albeit hardly aware of benefits and potential Status of a historical monument of buildings and its legal implications, lack of information, elections and lack of policy focus, lack of market (support) services, due to small size little innovation receptive capacity.
Private contracting parties Operate commercial decentralised CHP units and make contracts with end users. Contract with end users or housing corporation. Positive Lack of information, many barriers from other stakeholders indirectly harm contracting parties.
Consumers (e.g. households) Use of energy produced by decentralised CHP units (heat and/or electricity). Contractually related with CHP unit installer, contracting party, (in some cases) housing corporations, consultants, and the DSO. Might be connected to local government via decentralised CHP action plan (e.g. recipient of subsidy). Sceptical, albeit hardly aware High upfront investments, lack of financial governments support, monumental status of buildings, existing district heating grid, lack of information, habits of using energy equipment, transaction costs that go with CHP unit registration and using subsidies, elections and lack of policy focus.
Social housing corporations Adopt, own or rent and operate decentralise d CHP units from which the produced energy is to be used by tenants of the housing corporation. Contractually related with CHP unit provider, CHP unit installer, contracting party, DSO and local government, energy company. Positive Lack of information, transaction costs that go with CHP unit registration and using subsidies, social housing corporations legal entitlements and limitations.
Consultancy/advisory agencies Provide advice clients seeking information on adopting, using and finance of decentralised CHP. With commissioner, typically local governments, housing corporations, DSOs, some private households and companies. Positive Lack of information, many barriers from other stakeholders indirectly harm contracting parties.
Distribution system operator    Depending on ownership  
Owned by municipality (public utility company; PUC) Public utility companies operate part of local heating grids. Local government, end users, housing corporations, centralised energy company. Local government owns PUC. Positive Lack of information, concessions preventing ownership of all local heating grids.
Owned by RWE/E.ON Large energy companies possess long-term concessions to operate a part of the heating grids. Idem. However, energy company operates grid via concessions, not the PUC. Negative Potential ending of concession contracts. Loss of local heating grid monopolies.