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Table 3 Business model elements (source: own representation)

From: The renewable energy debate: how Austrian electric utilities are changing their business models

  Utility-side business model for renewable energies Customer-side business model for renewable energies
Product, value proposition Bulk generation of green electricity fed into the grid Shift from traditional utility to energy service provider, which extends the value proposition
Reliance on kWh sales
Does not rely on kWh sales
Support customers in planning, construction, operation, and financing of PV plants
Additional value for environmentally sensitive customers
Technology for electricity generation changes New ways for creating, delivering, and capturing values are needed
Customer interface No relationships with end customers Improved customer communication
Business to business relationships Business to customer relationships
Environmentally friendly electricity production as a marketing aid Utility as a partner for customers
Use of renewable energy improves corporate image
Use of renewable energy improves corporate image
New customer segment (eco-conscious customers)
New customer segment (eco-conscious customers)
Infrastructure management Key resources: large-scale renewable energy plants Key resources: small-scale decentralized PV plants
Key activities: new technologies, utilities can try to cover the whole value chain or at least to expand their activities in the value chain Key activities: manage, own, operate decentralized PV plants
Key partnerships: cooperation with suppliers, project developers, or other utilities
Key partnerships: cooperation with suppliers, project developers, or other utilities, to share risks and costs
Financial aspects Costs: planning, construction, operation, maintenance Costs: planning, construction, operation, maintenance
Revenues: charging the customer for the amount of electricity delivered Revenues: charging the customer for the planning, construction, etc., of the PV plant
New revenue sources: green electricity tariff, enhance activity in the value chain New revenue sources: supplying the customer with additional green electricity, offering energy services
  1. kWh kilowatt hour