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Table 2 Activity parameters for conversion plants in the regional foreground. Model plant concepts representative of the region were developed in collaboration with the German Biomass Research Centre (DBFZ) [64]. All flows unless otherwise stated are kg/MJ biodiesel produced, values have been rounded up to the nearest decimal place

From: RELCA: a REgional Life Cycle inventory for Assessing bioenergy systems within a region

  Small Medium
Infrastructure   
Oil mill Cold press Hot press
Biodiesel plant Batch Continuous
Oil mills   
Rapeseed 7.98 × 10−1 6.72 × 10−1
Electricity input (MJ MJ−1)a 2.69 × 10−1 2.3 × 10−2
Thermal energy input (MJ MJ−1)b 5.1210−2
Sodium hydroxide 8.06 × 10−5
Phosphoric acid 5.38 × 10−5
Presscake (output) c,d 5.2 × 10−2 4.03 × 10−2
Biodiesel plants   
Rapeseed oil c 2.71 × 10−2 2.69 × 10−2
Electricity input (MJ/MJ)a 2.34 × 10−3 1.84 × 10−3
Thermal energy input (MJ/MJ)b 2.77 × 10−2 1.66 × 10−2
Methanol 3.58 × 10−3 2.93 × 10−3
Potassium hydroxide 2.69 × 10-4 2.69× 10−4
Sodium hydroxide 8.06 × 10−5
Sulphuric acid 1.96 × 10−4 1.7 × 10−4
Hydrochloric acid 2.69 × 10−4
Biodieselc 2.69 × 10−2 2.69 × 10−2
Crude Glycerol d 3.47 × 10−3 3.23 × 10−3
FFA 5.4 × 10−4 2.69 × 10−4
Fertiliser 5.4 × 10−4 2.69 × 10−4
  1. aElectricity mix for Germany 2010 was taken from [100]
  2. bThermal energy refers to German natural gas mix, taken from [101]
  3. cEnergetic allocation was carried out using the following lower heating values (LHV): press cake was taken to be 18.7 MJ/kg, crude press oil 36 MJ/kg and biodiesel 37.2 MJ/kg biodiesel [102]
  4. dOutput in italics refers to by-products. For this simple example, by products (except for press cake) were not considered; however, they are provided here to show the balances for each plant concept. Crude glycerol (approx. 80 % glycerol)