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Table 2 Sustainability Indicator System targets for 2020, 2030 and 2050

From: Sustainability assessment of the German energy transition

  Targets Reference targets
  2020 2030 2050  
Securing human existence 1. Energy-related emissions of particulate matter (kt) 67.4 60.1 45.6 Target 2020 based on the amended protocol of Gothenburg, assumptions for 2030 and 2050.
2. Energy-related emissions of cadmium (t) 3.0 2.7 2.0 Target 2020 developed by analogy based on the amended protocol of Gothenburg, assumptions for 2030 and 2050.
3. Energy-related emissions of mercury (t) 6.5 5.8 4.4
4. Energy import dependency (%) 69 58 43 Targets taken from [9].
5. Monthly energy expenditures of households with a monthly net income less than 1300 Euros 139 142 147 Targets developed by analogy based on [22] and assumptions.
6. SAIDI of electricity (min) 12.5 10 10 Targets 2030 and 2050 developed by analogy based on [64].
7. Relation of employees in the renewable energy sector to total employees (%) 0.94 0.93 1.19 Targets developed by analogy based on [9, 14] and assumptions.
8. Final energy consumption of private households per capita (GJ/capita) 29.3 24.7 17.6 Targets developed by analogy based on [65].
9. Relation of technician salary to manager salary at the big electricity suppliers 1:12 1:12 1:12 Targets developed by analogy based on [66].
Maintaining society’s productive potential 10. Share of renewable energy in gross final consumption of energy (%) 23 36 60 Targets taken from [9].
11. Area under cultivation of energy crops (mio. ha) 2.0 1.9 1.6 Targets developed by analogy based on [26].
12. Unused renewable electricity due to management measures (GWh) 4047 2698 0 Target 2050 based on assumptions, linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
13. Use of primary energy (PJ/a) 11,504 10,066 7190 Targets taken from [65].
14. Specific final energy consumption of households for heating (temperature-corrected) (MJ/m2) 435 367 230 Targets taken from [9].
15. Final energy consumption in the transport sector (in PJ) 2337 1973 1521
16. Modal split in the transport sector (%) 20 20 20 Targets developed by analogy based on [9] and own assumption.
17. Number of electric vehicles (mio.) 1 6 22 Target 2020: political goal of the Federal Government, target 2030 based on [65], target 2050 taken from [9].
18. Final energy productivity of the German economy (€/GJ) 366 482 743 Targets taken from [9].
19. Final energy productivity of the industry (€/GJ) 306 403 621
20. Final energy productivity of trade, commerce and services (€/GJ) 1602 2111 3251
21. Energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (mio. t of CO2 eq.) 622 467 207 Targets derived from political goals of the Federal Government.
22. Energy-related emissions of acid-forming gases (in mio. t of SO2 eq.) 0.93 0.85 0.69 Targets developed by analogy based on the amendment of the Gothenburg Protocol (see [67]) and own assumptions.
23. Energy-related hazardous solid wastes (t) 789,223 526,148 0 Target 2050 based on assumptions, linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
24. Amount of high-level radioactive waste which has not been transferred to a safe final disposal site (t HM)    0
25. Installed capacity of renewable energy power plants (GWp) 116 144 169 Targets taken from [9].
26. Number of university graduates in the field of energy sciences 2702 2516 2919 Targets developed by analogy based on [9] and assumptions.
27. Federal expenditures for energy research (mio. €) 1212 1365 1670
28. Number of German patents in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency 2580 2874 3459
29. Number of start-ups in the renewable energy and energy efficiency sector 18,288 20,363 24,515
30. Added value creation from the renewable energy sector (billion €) 24.6 29.4 36.4 Targets developed by analogy based on [68, 69] and assumptions.
31. Added value creation from energy efficiency measures in households (billion €) 28 35 42 Targets developed by analogy based on [9] and assumptions.
Preserving society’s Options for development and action 32. Gender pay gap in the highest salary group in the energy sector (€/a) 9754 0 0 Targets 2030 and 2050 based on assumptions.
33. Share of regulatory tools in the planning of power transmission grids that fulfil regulatory requirements (%) 92 100 100
34. Share of tourists who perceive energy power technologies as being disruptive in the vacation area (%) 10 7 0 Targets based on assumptions.
35. Acceptance of renewable energies in the neighbourhood (%) 71 81 100 Target 2050 based on assumptions, linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
36. Acceptance of grid extension for achieving 100% renewable energy supply (%) 72 81 100
Conditions to achieve the substantial sustainability 37. Degree of internalization of energy-related external costs (%) 62.7 75.1 100
38. Share of development aid expenditure on energy-related projects in relation to total GDP (%) 0.07 0.09 0.15 Target 2050 taken from [26] and linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
39. Share of households producing renewable electricity (%) 12 18 30 Targets based on assumptions.
40. Share of households buying renewable electricity (%) 37 58 100 Target 2050 based on assumptions, linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
41. Share of installed smart meters mandatory for large electricity consumers 22 48 100
42. Volume of publicly funded loans for energy-related investments (billion €) 23.7 27.3 31.4 Targets based on assumptions.
43. Number of energy cooperatives engaged in renewable energy plants 1415 2215 3691
44. Share of population living in regions with the objective to shift to 100% renewable energy (%) 26 51 100 Target 2050 based on assumptions, linear extrapolation for 2030 and 2020.
45. Market share of the four biggest electricity companies on the market for the first-time sale of electricity (%) ≤ 60 ≤ 60 ≤ 60 Targets based on [70].