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Table 1 Development of bioelectricity deployment support design (based on subsequent versions of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG))

From: Contributions of flexible power generation from biomass to a secure and cost-effective electricity supply—a review of potentials, incentives and obstacles in Germany

EEG version Major instrument characteristics
EEG 2000–EEG 2009 Fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT) per kilowatt-hour; electricity marketed centrally by transmission system operators
EEG 2012 Introduction of sliding feed-in premium (FIP) in combination with direct marketing and flexibility premium for biogas plants on an optional basis
EEG 2014 - Direct marketing obligatory for new plants, in combination with administered FIP (from 2016, FIT only remains available for new plants ≤ 100 kW)
- Reduction of bioelectricity remuneration rates and introduction of 100 MWel cap on the gross annual expansion of biomass capacities (if exceeded, remuneration rates undergo an accelerated decrease)
- Flexibility premium for biogas plants is continued
EEG 2017 - Introduction of tenders for wind, PV and biomass
- Bioenergy tenders: for all new plants > 150 kWel (plants ≤ 150 kWel receive the administered FIP; plants ≤ 100 kWel the fixed FIT)
- Bids relate to the reference price for the sliding FIP
- Remuneration is awarded “pay as bid” (except for existing plants ≤ 150 kWel, which can opt for participation and receive remuneration according to the highest successful bid)
- Bids are limited by a price cap (subject to annual degression): 14.88 ct/kWh for new plants and 16.9 ct/kWh for existing plants in 2017 (to compare—administered reference prices under the EEG 2014 were 13.66 ct/kWh for plants ≤ 150 kWel, less for larger plants, see § 44 EEG 2014)Footnote

Under the EEG 2014, higher reference prices apply for biogas plants based primarily on organic waste or slurry (§ 45 and 46 EEG 2014); the EEG 2017 maintains comparatively high administered remuneration rates for small slurry-based biogas plants (§ 44 EEG 2017).

- Successful new plants receive the FIP for 20 years, existing plants (which can participate if 8 years or less of their EEG remuneration period remain) for 10 years
- Flexibility premium for biogas plants is continued