Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 4 | Energy, Sustainability and Society

Fig. 4

From: Grid-based multi-energy systems—modelling, assessment, open source modelling frameworks and challenges

Fig. 4

Spatial coverage, model level of detail and typical optimisation problem formulation. Classification of existing MES models according to their level of detail and spatial resolution. I: large-scale grid studies relying on simplified models, II: simple tools for quick assessments of small-scale energy systems, III: building and city district energy system design studies with simplified models, IV: on-site energy system studies with additional features, V: mixed-integer linear programming with part-load efficiencies and VI: mixed-integer non-linear programming with complex models. Adapted from [38]

Back to article page