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Table 5 Overview of production cost estimates for renewable gases (based on [7,8,9, 11, 12, 52, 60, 83, 95, 110])

From: How and to which extent can the gas sector contribute to a climate-neutral European energy system? A qualitative approach

Source Ref. Full cost of production (€/MWh) Remarks
Biomethane
 Paturska et al. [7] 46 Consideration of anaerobic digestion only
 Zappa et al. [95] 49 Consideration of anaerobic digestion only
 van Melle et al. [12] 52 Average cost reflecting both anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification
 European Commission [83] 61–68 Average cost; considering anaerobic digestion only
 Budzianowski et al [11] 70 Consideration of anaerobic digestion only
 Papp et al. [8] 62–94 Cost range reflects different combinations of plant size, plant technology, and feedstock
 Thrän et al. [9] 69–94 Consideration of anaerobic digestion only; cost range reflects different combinations of plant size, plant technology, and feedstock
 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) [110] 84 Average cost for different residues feedstocks in a high-cost environment
Renewable hydrogen
 van Melle et al. [12] 52 Low-cost excess electricity only
 Perner et al. [60] 50–75 Based on strong economies of scale due to significant increase of global electrolyser capacity; applicable for both production based on low-cost excess electricity in Europe and maximized production in commercially attractive regions outside the EU (for the latter incl. transport)
 Van Wijk, A. [52] 63 Based on baseload production using mainly off-shore wind power
Synthetic renewable methane
 Perner et al. [60] 100–150 Based on strong economies of scale due to significant increase of global electrolyser capacity; applicable for both production based on low-cost excess electricity in Europe and maximized production in commercially attractive regions outside the EU (for the latter incl. transport)