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Table 3 Characteristics of the considered biomass refinement levels

From: Evaluation of co-firing as a cost-effective short-term sustainable CO2 mitigation strategy in Germany

 Wood chipsIndustry pelletsTorrefied biomass
Calorific value (MJ/kg)9–10c17c19–22c
Maximum co-firing ratio (%)10a30b50c
Reductionof efficieny (%)9.4a4.7d0d
Maximum co-firing rate (%)103050
Fuel prices in 2020 (€/MWh)27.27e33.18e36.87e
Transportation costs (€/MWh)4.97e6.85e8.63e
Investment costs for retrofitting (€/MWel)346,000f154,000f38,000f
Depreciation and debt services for retrofitting (€/MWel*a)37.85g16.82g4.21g
Allocation of biomass (hard coal) (€/MWh)8.32h3.7h0.92h
Allocation of biomass (lignite) (€/MWh)5.55h2.47h0.62h
  1. a[28]b[29]c[30]dAssumptions based on [29,30,31]: torrefied biomass co-firing without performance loss; mean value of wood chips and torrefied biomass performance loss for industry pelletseCalculation according to the approach in Additional file 1: Table S2-4f [28, 32,33,34], Conversion rate of US Dollar to EUR, 1.3gInvestment costs as annuity with an amortisation period of 15 years at 8% interest ratehAnnuity allocated to biomass fuel consumption based on the mean hours of operation at full load of lignite (6814 h/a) and hard coal power plants (4547 h/a) as given in [27]