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Table 8 The empirical findings based on the vector error correction model

From: Analyzing long-term empirical interactions between renewable energy generation, energy use, human capital, and economic performance in Pakistan

 Specification 5
Δ(EP)
Specification 6
Δ(EGR)
Specification 7
Δ(EUA)
Specification 8
Δ(HCIN)
ECM (− 1)− 0.954 (0.025)− 10,094.540 (0.009)− 309.325 (0.050)− 0.190 (0.090)
Δ(EP (− 1))0.057 (0.092)2040.003 (0.085)− 151.420 (0.054)0.357 (0.003)
Δ(EGR (− 1))− 2.2 × 103 (0.075)0.547 (0.000)0.233 (0.042)0.577 (0.052)
Δ(EUA (− 1))0.009 (0.095)7.294 (0.010)− 0.403 (0.035)0.395 (0.035)
Δ(HCIN (− 1))0.0127 (0.006)4.837 (0.008)0.829 (0.015)0.019 (0.013)
C3.470 (0.049)− 7806.684 (0.090)4122.740 (0.000)5.698 (0.000)
R-squared0.9250.8950.5240.859
Adj. R-squared0.9530.8860.5200.841
F-statistics43.31678.03538.97441.192
  1. C constant, EGR renewable energy generation, EUA aggregated energy use, EP economic performance, HCIN human capital index, R-squared coefficient of determination, Adj. adjusted, F-statistics overall significance of the model