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Table 3 Average carbon intensity and PM10 emissions of the typical energy sources in the study area. Source: [65,66,67,68,69]

From: Heat consumption scenarios in the rural residential sector: the potential of heat pump-based demand-side management for sustainable heating

  Electricity Natural gas Lignite Firewood
CO2 (kg/kWh)* 0.369 0.185 1.334
Local PM10 (g/kWh)** 0.001 1.400 0.251–0.504
  1. *CO2 emissions associated with transportation are not included
  2. **PM10 emissions associated with electricity generation are not included