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Table 5 Typology of online participation along three dimensions: participation (participation / non-participation, activity (active / passive), and attitude (positive / negative)

From: Conceptual framework for increasing legitimacy and trust of sustainability governance

  Participation Non-participation
  Active Passive Active Passive
Positive Constructive engagement
engaging audiences online for a purpose commonly accepted as beneficial
Incidental contribution
moved to engage by others without any genuine intention but in a beneficial way
refrain from an activity to further a cause considered socially desirable
Lack of awareness or motivation
no awareness of any need to engage in an activity
Negative Destructive engagement
engaging for a purpose widely considered harmful or undesirable
Involuntary imposition
drawn into forms of participation deemed detrimental
Silencing, self-censoring
refrain from online engagement due to perceived pressure or threats
exclusion from participating despite the potential usefulness of participation
  1. From Lutz and Hoffmann [175]