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Table 9 Friction coefficient for a variety of landscapes

From: Designing a solar and wind hybrid system for small-scale irrigation: a case study for Kalangala district in Uganda

Landscape typeFriction coefficient
Lakes, ocean and smooth hard ground0.10
Grasslands (ground level)0.15
Tall crops, hedges and shrubs0.20
Heavily forested land0.25
Small town with some trees and shrubs0.30
City area with high rise buildings0.4